Cancer and Oncology



The healthy cells in our body renew and replace themselves in a controlled way.

Body tissues consist of billions of cells. When we are fully grown, most of the cells in the body stop dividing and further proliferation. They spend most of their time in the midst of calm, and they break apart only if the damage is needed. When the cells are divided, they form two completely identical cells. Thus, instead of 1 cell, there are now 2 cells and then these cells divide by 4, 8 and form cells that continue in this way.

During cancer, the cells continue to divide until a cell stack is formed. This cell stack creates a lump. This lump is called a tumor. Cancer cells are divided more often than normal cells. Cancer is out of control as cell changes in some way and starts in that way.

A tumor is a cluster of abnormal cells showing uncontrolled change and becomes mass.

Most cancers are tumors. However, not all tumors are cancerous.

There are two types of Tumors as benign and malignant tumors.

Benign tumors do not spread and do not form new tumors.

Malignant tumors remove healthy cells, disrupts the normal functioning of the body, and takes the nutrients held in the tissues.

Metastasis is the progression of malignant cells, lymph nodes and blood vessels along with the growth and spread of new tumors in other parts of the body.

There are more than 100 types of cancer and related diseases.


Early diagnosis is an important factor in the treatment of the patient. It has a direct effect on the patient's recovery.

Most types of cancers are detected when a tumor is detected or other symptoms occur.

Occasionally, it may also occur by chance during other treatments.

Diagnosis is done firstly by physical examination. Blood urine stool is supported by laboratory results. Abnormal findings are important in the correct diagnosis.

If a tumor is suspected, the location and size of the tumor are determined by X-Ray CT MRI Ultrasound imaging.

To confirm the diagnosis of cancer, the tissue sample is removed from the suspected tumor and examined under a microscope to control the cancer cells. This process is called a biopsy. A biopsy is required for most cancer diagnoses.

If the biopsy is diagnosed with cancer, further tests are performed.


For the treatment of cancer Depending on the type and stage of cancer, some treatments are applied to slow the growth of the tumor or to destroy it altogether.

Surgery, radiation therapy, drug therapy, hormone therapy, and immunotherapy are performed.


It is the process of removing cancerous tissue from the body. Surgical procedures are performed in a hospital environment, in a standing or operating room, by applying local or general anesthesia.

Surgery is the primary method for the treatment of cancer. Because of the method applied in the surgical treatment, it is only a treatment for the cancerous region. Only the operated part of the body is treated. Applied for non-invasive cancer. It is a more effective treatment method in the early diagnosis phase.

Tumors and cancerous tissues are taken as well as some normal tissues from nearby lymph clusters.

After surgery, the tissues are examined under a microscope. Supportive treatment is decided to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.

In some types of cancer, supportive treatment is needed before surgery. The purpose of these treatments is to reduce cancer before surgery and to take this treatment.

Support therapies are chemotherapy, radiotherapy, biological therapy, and hormone therapy.

When is Surgery Decided?

Small early stage cancers that do not spread to other parts of the body can heal with surgery.

It depends on:

             Type of cancer

             The stage of cancer

             General health condition

General Tests

You need to take some tests to make sure that you are well enough for any preoperative anesthesia and operation.

These may include the following tests: Blood tests, Urine Tests, Chest Film, ECG Other Tests

Blood Tests

Your ability to cope with infection, you will have a complete blood count to check that your blood is clotting normally and not anemic. Blood tests also check how good your liver is and how your kidneys work. In case you need a blood transfusion during surgery, your blood group can be checked.


Chemotherapy is literally drug treatment. In cancer treatment, chemotherapy is the killing of cancerous cells by the drug. It can be given by combining with a single drug or more than one drug.

Things to look for in chemotherapy

Type of cancer

The starting point of cancer



General Health Status

In order to damage the dividing cancer cells, chemical drugs entering the bloodstream damage the cells that continue to divide. In this way, by destroying the control center of cells that tend to divide, kill the cells or damage the chemical processes that occur during the division of the cells. Thanks to its blood circulation, it can reach the cancerous cells throughout the body.

Chemotherapy Routes:

Mast directly in the vein

Delivery into the vein in serum

Oral use of tablets

In the form of capsules

Chemotherapy drugs can sometimes damage cells in the division stage, and sometimes damage cells before splitting. In this case, normal cells are less damaged than cancer cells.

Chemotherapy drugs, as well as other drugs, can be used in combination. The purpose of this combination is to prevent cancer cells in different stages from being damaged by a single treatment.

Chemotherapy’s Side Effects

Chemotherapy drugs kill the cells that continue to divide. For this reason, chemotherapy also affects the healthy body tissues of constantly growing and dividing cells. Skin, bone marrow, hair follicles, and the digestive tract membrane are examples of constantly developing and dividing cells.

Because these tissues continue to divide, these tissues are damaged by chemotherapy. However, normal cells can repair or replace healthy cells that have been damaged by chemotherapy. Thus, damage to healthy cells usually does not continue. The majority of side effects disappear when your treatment ends, and only some, such as nausea and diarrhea, occur during the days you take medication.


Radiotherapy means the use of radiation, usually X-rays, for treating the disease. X-rays have been discovered in 1895 and have since been used in medicine in order to diagnose radiation (radiography) and therapy (radiotherapy).

The radiotherapy team plans tailor-made radiotherapy for everyone, so high doses are applied to cancer cells, while the lowest possible dose is given to healthy cells around it. Healthy cells that receive radiotherapy can be repaired later. The purpose of this treatment; reducing the risk of side effects while minimizing the chance of cancer or treatment is to maximize.

Approximately 4 (40%) of 10 patients with cancer receive radiotherapy as part of their treatment. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways:

External radiotherapy using other particles from outside the body, such as X-rays, cobalt irradiation, electrons and protons

By internal radiotherapy, the ingestion of a liquid to be taken by the cancer cells or the release of radioactive material into or near the tumor

How does radiotherapy work?

Radiotherapy destroys the DNA of the cancer cells in the treatment area and destroys them. Although normal cells are affected by radiation, they repair themselves better than cancer cells.

You receive radiotherapy as a series of treatments that usually last a few days or weeks. Each treatment is called a fraction. Fractions are usually given every day from Monday to Friday and at the end of the week, they are rested to help repair normal cells. Damaged healthy cells are often replaced by new cells that are part of the body's repair mechanisms. This depends on the type of cell and the dose of radiation. However, if cells cannot be replaced with new ones, side effects may be permanent.

Organizing your treatment plan

Depending on the type of cancer you have, radiotherapy can be the only treatment you can take or you can receive radiotherapy before, during or after surgery or chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is sometimes given with chemotherapy, and this is called chemoradiation. Radiotherapy specialists (clinical oncologists) evaluate the type and size of cancer you have, before planning your treatment. They also consider your general health status. These experts work with a team including physiologists, radiologists, and X-rays. The treatment team plans the treatment that suits your needs.

Your doctor will need to adjust the total dose of radiotherapy in the cancerous area.

Measures the shape of your body and the position of cancer. The medical team usually determines the total dose to be used and then divides this dose into a number of smaller doses called fractions. Usually every weekday a treatment fraction, you will not receive treatment at the weekend. However, some people receive treatment less frequently, e.g. 3 times a week. Some people receive treatment more intensely, for example, twice a day.